Glossary

Address Correction Service
USPS service, which provides the mailer with the forwarding address of the addressee—if filed with the USPS—or the reason for non-delivery.

Address splitting
Placing city, state and ZIP code into separate fields in a database for more flexible data sorting.

Author’s Alterations (AA’s)
At the proofing stage, changes that the client requests to be made concerning original art provided. AA’s are usually considered an additional cost to the client.

Back up
(1) To print the second side of a sheet already printed on one side. (2) To adjust an image on one side of a press sheet so that it aligns back-to-back with an image on the other side.

BCS (Barcode Sorter)
A mail processing machine, which reads barcodes on mail and automatically sorts the pieces.

Bleed
Printing that extends to the edge of a finished printed document. In practice, the image must extend beyond the edge on oversize paper and then trimmed back to the finish size.  

BRC
Business reply card.

BRE
Business reply envelope.

BRM (Business Reply Mail)
A USPS service that enables mailers to receive First-Class Mail back from customers by paying postage only on the mail actually returned to them by their customers.
C1S and C2S – acronyms for coated one side and coated 2 sides of a sheet. Instaprint offers between 8 point and 18 point in thickness.  

CASS
CASS software will correct and standardize addresses for more accuracy in mailing.  

Cleaned List
A mailing list that has had duplicate and unwanted names and addresses removed.

CMYK
The subtractive primary ink colors, cyan, magenta, yellow and black used to image color in 4-color process printing. 

Comb Binding
Plastic comb binding inserted through holes punched in bindery edge of leaves.

Corrupt File
An electronic file that either will not open, or produces unexpected and unwanted results due to any number of reasons. This problem most often occurs when copying, compressing or transferring files, because the file is incorrectly interpreted. 

Crop Marks
Short lines outside the margin of a print document to indicate the finished size. 

Customization
A printed piece with variable content targeted to a particular group of people. 

Database
A collection of information stored in a computer that can be easily accessed and manipulated. 

Debossing
Deboss means the reverse of embossing. The use of heated dies to stamp or press a depressed image into a substrate. 

Diecutting
The process of cutting paper in a shape or design with steel dies.  

Direct Mail
A comprehensive system of media and methods for solicitations mailed directly to a large number of customers and prospects, seeking to develop or enhance a client relationship. 

Dot Gain
Phenomenon of halftone dots printing larger on paper than they are on film or plates, reducing detail and lowering contrast. Also called dot growth, dot spread and press gain. 

Dots-Per-Inch (DPI)
Measure of resolution of input devices such as scanners, display devices such as monitors, and output devices such as laser printers, image setters and monitors. Abbreviated DPI. Also called dot pitch or spots-per-inch (SPI). 

Dull Finish
A coated paper that is less glossy than gloss and more glossy than matte.  

Dummy
A folded guide created early in the design process to indicate rough content; sometimes referred to as a comp. 

Duplicate
Two or more identical name-and-address records.

Embossing
Emboss means using a die to press an image into paper so it lies above the surface. It results in a dimensional image on a sheet. The embossing may be single level or sculptured (referred to as multilevel). Embossing may be either blind (without any printed image), foil (application of foil at the same time as embossing), or printed (embossing over a previously printed image). 

EPS – (encapsulated post script)
A standard file format used to transfer postscript formatting information between applications

Finishing
Finishing includes die-cutting, coating, laminating, embossing, punching, and gluing. Today, many of these processes are accomplished inline on the press. Some, like folding, are basic to turning the press sheet into a product. Others, like stamping, are decorative and can enhance the design. Still others, like aqueous and UV coating, can be both decorative and protect the printed product. Binding is the work required to convert printed sheets into books, brochures, catalogs, and more. 

Flat
A mail piece that exceeds one or more dimensions of letter-size mail (11.5” x 6 1/8”x.25”) but is within the size specifications for mail processing (15” x 12”x.75”). 

Foil Stamping
Stamp means pressing a heated die onto a sheet of foil, which releases the foil from its backing and adheres it to a substrate. Foils are not only metallic but may be holographic, tinted, or pigmented. Pigmented foils, including white, are usually opaque and are used frequently to imprint a light image or type on dark stocks. 

Fulfillment
Print on demand, storage and/or delivery of a customer’s print materials and other items.  

Imposition
A press sheet layout or template guide used to locate and position pages to facilitate finishing in the bindery. 

In-House List
A list of customer names, addresses and other contact information compiled and maintained by a company. Also called a loyalty list.  

Indicia
Imprinted designation on mail that denotes postage payment, for example, a permit imprint. 

Insert
Any item that is placed in a direct mail package. 

Kerning    
The narrowing of space between two letters so that they become closer and take up less space on the page.

Layout
The design and arrangement of text and graphics on a page. 

Leading    
Space between lines of type. The distance in points between one baseline and the next.

List Cleaning
Correcting or updating a mailing list to standardize addresses, eliminate duplicates and make other corrections as required. 

List Compiler
A person or company that specializes in gathering names, addresses and other information from various sources to produce a customized list of prospective customers.

Merge
The process of combining two or more lists into one for mailing.   

Merge/Purge
The process of combining data from multiple lists to identify and eliminate duplicate names for a single mailing or to create a marketing database.

Name Parsing
Placing first name and last name in separate fields in a database. 

Native Files
Original layout files that can be changed in prepress or workflow stages if necessary. 

NCOA (National Change of Address list)
A list of U.S. addresses that have changed in the last three years, made available by the USPS to licensees for correcting addresses on lists and in marketing databases. 

OCR (Optical Character Reader)
An automated mail processing machine that scans addresses on mail and applies the proper postal barcode. 

OE (Outer Envelope)
The envelope that delivers a direct mail package, often with a teaser on the front to entice the recipient to open it. 

Offset
The process of printing from a lithographic plate whereby the work is first imaged onto a rubber blanket and then “offset” from the rubber blanket to the paper.

On-Press Proofs
Proofs printed on the same digital press that will be used for production to show exactly how the final piece will look. 

Overruns
The number of pieces by which a print run is over the quantity ordered. Also called “overs.”

PDF
Adobe’s Portable Document format, designed to modify electronic PostScript documents so that they can be read and processed across any platform. 

Parent sheet    
A sheet that is larger than the cut stock of the same paper.

Perfect Binding
Individual leaves are glued at the spine to form the book. Ask for special preparation instructions. 

PMS    
The abbreviation of the Pantone Color Matching System.

PostScript
Adobe’s fundamental electronic page-description language used in the digital printing industry to create and image documents. 
Proofs

A proof is any imaged document intended for checking the content or quality of the project prior to actual print production. Hard proofs are on paper or similar substrate. Hard proofs intended to prove the quality of the image are called contract proofs. Those intended to show content and positioning are called imposition proofs. Electronic proofs viewed on a monitor are called soft proofs.

QR code
A QR code or “Quick Response” code is a two-dimensional code that is readable by dedicated QR barcode readers and camera phones. The code consists of black modules arranged in a square pattern on a white background. The information encoded can be text, a URL or other data.

Register
In multi-color printing, the exact positioning of overprint images. Printing that does not line up is said to be mis-registered.

RGB
The additive primary colors of light, red, green and blue. RGB is the color model used to describe colors on a computer monitor.

Saddle Stitching
Signatures inserted into each other and stitched through the spine. Requirements: Lip on back of signature at least 1/4”. Head trims and foot trims should be 1/8”.

Scoring
Mechanically creasing the substrate to indicate fold positions and to facilitate folding. Heavy stocks or those requiring very precise folding should be scored prior to folding. 

Seed
A contact inserted into a mailing list to help verify that the list is used according to the agreed-upon terms, by tracking the number of uses. 

Sheet-Fed Press
A printing press that prints on single, pre-cut sheets of paper fed from trays. 

Side Stitch
Stapled through stack, parallel to spine. 

Sorting
Arranging mail pieces in ZIP code order to facilitate processing and to qualify for lower postage fees.

Source Code
A unique identifier attached to a mailing, coupon or other marketing communication for performance tracking. 

Spiral Binding
Wire or plastic spiral inserted through holes punched in bindery edge of leaves. Requirements: Margin should allow for binding.

Trimming
Removing the edges of printed sheets to clean up marginal items like crop marks, color bars, etc. 

UV (Ultraviolet Coating)
A very shiny and durable high gloss coating applied to printed products. 

Variable Data Printing (VDP)
Any digital printing process that varies the text, data or images on each sheet in response to information in databases. Also known as dynamic printing and variable information printing.

Web Press
A printing press that prints on a continuous web of paper fed from a roll. 

Web to Print
The automated process by which print work is ordered via the web. 

Window Envelope
Envelopes with an opening or transparent window through which an address printed on an insert is visible. 

Work and Tumble, Work and Turn, Work and Roll, Work and Back
A press-sheet layout convention that allows both sides of a print job to be imaged on a single set of plates. The press sheet is worked, or printed on one side and then the paper is turned over and printed using the same set of plates.